Teresa Clyne BA (Hons) MSc

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What is Geographical Profiling?

The geographic model can potentially be applied to all sorts of crime. It examines the distribution of a series of crimes, as was the case in Stuart Kind’s prediction of the Yorkshire Ripper’s base of action and David Canter’s
work in establishing the significance of location in the Railway Murderer (John Duffy) case. Geographic profiling, however, began in North America.

The North American approach Geographic profiling is an investigative tool developed by Kim Rossmo. He developed it whilst he was serving as a Detective Chief Inspector in the Vancouver City Police Department. Now Dr. Kim Rossmo, he has been a research professor in Texas State’s Department of Criminal Justice since
2003, and the University’s Endowed Chair in Criminology since 2007.

Although there have been a number of studies of offenders’ spatial patterns, it is Rossmo who is most widely connected with geographical profiling as an
investigative tool. He advocated its use in conjunction with, and as a complement to, crime linkage and investigative profiling.

In his address to the National Center for Intelligence Studies, Rossmo (1998) defined geographic profiling as:

‘An information management strategy to assist in serial, violent crime investigations, which facilitates the focus of investigative efforts. It is also a support service, a type of analysis and an investigative procedure. The whole
process is based on the intelligent collection, analysis and sharing of information. Suitable crimes for geographical profiling are those that are serial in nature, murder, rape, robbery, arson, bombings and predatory crimes such as sex murders or child molestation.’

Can a person be addicted to crime?

In a word, .... YES.

Crime addictions, like any addiction the addiction to crime has common characteristics (Peale. S, 1985) "addictive experiences are potent modifiers of mood and sensation".

There is a common theory that the following characteristics of addictions include:

...Tolerance - the need for more to produce the same effect.
...Withdrawal - distress after a period of non-engagement.
...Craving - distress associated with desire to re-engage.
...Salience - increasing importance of addiction in lifestyle.
...Conflict - increasing awareness of negative consequences.
...Relapse - reinstatement after a decision to stop or reduce.

Addicted to sexual crime

There are four main studies in the sexual offending literature which suggest that some sexual offending can be addictive. The first is that of McCulloch et al (1983) where the authors took a sample of sadistic sexual offenders in a British Special Hospital.

They found that of their sample of 16, 13 described elaborate and frequent masturbation fantasies. These fantasies showed tolerance in that for many subjects, they were being constantly revised in the direction of greater sadistic and violent content.

Some offenders reported that, after a time, their fantasies had become unsatisfying and had to be supplemented with their acting-out part of the fantasy for them to continue to achieve that state of arousal they were seeking.

For many, these “behavioural try-outs”
eventually led to the full index offence or offences for which they were convicted.

Private Investigation Course

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Layman’s Guide – An Introduction to Criminal law in Ireland

Layman’s Guide to Criminal law in Ireland

criminal law

Legal writing in plain English. Law guidebooks using plain English which is easy to understand using clear concise plain wording.

Welcome to my series of law guidebooks for beginners.

The principles of criminal law are explained step-by-step with a focus on the professional applications of legal principles within the criminal justice system. The layman’s guide to Irish law contains more and updated case studies. Written in a conversational tone, An Introduction to Criminal Law, is the ideal resource for lay persons or undergraduate students taking a criminal law courses.

What is Criminal Law?Criminal law governs crimes. Crimes are generally referred to as offences against the state. The standard of proof for crimes is “beyond a reasonable doubt.”

A crime is defined in law in Ireland as an act which may be punished by the State. The way in which a criminal offence is investigated and prosecuted depends on the type of crime involved. For these purposes criminal offences may be described in different ways such as:

* Summary offences
* Indictable offences
* Minor offences
* Serious offences
* Arrestable offences

There are two ways criminal offences can be tried in Irish law:

* In the lower court (District Court) before a judge without a jury (summary).
* In the higher courts (Circuit Criminal Court, Central Criminal Court) before a judge and jury (indictable).

There are many legal phrases that non-lawyers don’t understand. When you first start studying law the terminology (wording) or principles (rules) can be overwhelming, I have been teaching law for over 7 years and in that time I have taught mainly beginner or entry level students who have had some difficulty in the early stages of study and even faltering due to this whole new language which is the law, this textbook series was put together to help you to put the principles and terminology in plain English (ride with stabilisers) until such time as you are ready to revert to the terminology in the knowledge that you are more confident and knowledgeable and ready to ride that bike without stabilisers.

The explanations in this guide are not intended to be alternatives to legal terminology, rather a head start on the legal jargon, the reader will continue to use legal phrases when necessary.

These are not law textbooks per se, they are legal guides for beginners.
Introduction to Criminal Law.. 11
The Main Elements of a Crime
Article 40 of the constitution of Ireland. 16
Summary and indictable offences
Accomplice to Crime. 23
Principal in Crime. 23
Accessory after the Fact
Inchoate Offences
Public order offences in Ireland. 28Trespass on a building, etc. 33
Riot 34
Violent disorder 34
Affray. 35
Blackmail,extortion and demanding money with menaces. 36
Assault with intent to cause bodily harm or commit an indictable offence. 37
Assault or obstruction of a peace officer 37
Attacks on emergency service personnel 38

The Criminal Court System, Arrest and Detention
Civil Liability & Courts Act 2004
Indictable offences: 67
Summary offences:
Bail 73

Arrests. 74

An arrestable offence under the Criminal Law Act 1997. 78
Section 30 of the Offences  Against The State Act 1939.

. 23
Principal in Crime. 23
Accessory after the Fact
Inchoate Offences
Public order offences in Ireland. 28

Trespass on a building, etc. 33
Riot 34
Violent disorder 34
Affray. 35
Blackmail,extortion and demanding money with menaces. 36
Assault with intent to cause bodily harm or commit an indictable offence. 37
Assault or obstruction of a peace officer 37
Attacks on emergency service personnel 38

The Criminal Court System, Arrest and Detention
Civil Liability & Courts Act 2004
Indictable offences: 67
Summary offences:
Bail 73

Arrests. 74

An arrestable offence under the Criminal Law Act 1997. 78
Section 30 of the Offences  Against The State Act 1939.

 

A Beginners Guide – An Introduction to Offender Profiling

How to Profile a Criminal 8.5 x 5

The introduction book provides clear and concise information on central issues such as the origins of criminal profiling from the American Top Down Theories of Offenders behaviours and actions to the UKs Bottom Up Theories, it has its roots in FBI profiling methodology and limitations of profiling are also explained to the reader.

If you are interested in criminal profiling and would like to learn more, An Introduction to Offender Profiling; analysing the Criminal Mind is the perfect place to start.

Have you ever wondered how profilers profile offenders?, how they can gather so much information about a suspect from such things as the age and race and gender of the offender from the crime scene or victims.

Offender Profiling providing a likely description of an offender based on an analysis of
– Crime scene
– The victim
– Other available evidence

Offender Profiling does not solve crime or identify individuals, but it does provide a means of narrowing the range of potential suspects (Holmes & Holmes 1996)

The British method – a ‘bottom-up’ approach to Offender Profiling

Research from “Canter” reveals that the bottom up approach is:
Based on psychological theories and methodologies (cognitive social)
Formulated to show how and why variations in criminal behavior occur
Consistent within actions of offenders

More objective & reliable than the American Top down model. Canter (1980s)

Approaches to profiling – Top Down – The American method
Classification system for several serious crimes, especially rape and murder
For example: murders classified as ‘organised’ or ‘disorganised’

Organised offenders Features:
Planned crimes
Self-control
Covers tracks
Victim is stranger

Characteristics:
Intelligent
Skilled occupation
Socially competent
Angry/depressed

Disorganised Offenders Features:
Unplanned crimes
Haphazard
Leaves clues
Characteristics:
Socially inadequate
Unskilled
First/last born child
Lives alone
Knows victim
Confused/frightened. (Rossiter et al 1988)

The Life and Crimes of Serial Killers

1

An insight into some of the world’s most infamous killers. Their lives, crimes and trials.

For Centuries we have had both disgust and a fascination for serial killers. There is something about the way their minds work that captivates our own minds, and causes us to want to know more about them.

Did something cause them to commit their crimes, or were they born to kill? Why do they do the things that they do?

There is so much to study and so much to learn when it comes to these grotesque figures and the murders they committed. From the internal workings of their minds to what set them off, it is hard to limit the study of serial killers to just one topic.

This book explores the life and crimes of 11 of the world’s most notorious and deadly killers, including Ireland’s Michael Bambrick.

Learn why serial killers do what they do
Discover the common thread that ties all serial killers together. And more!

‘when you have eliminated the impossible, whatever remains, however improbable, must be the truth’ ~ Sherlock Holmes.

Amazon Author Page

My Amazon Author Page, pop in and have a look around.

All books are available to order directly from Amazon

Forensic Psychology (2) How to Profile a Criminal 8.5 x 5 1 1 1 An Introduction to Mediation front cover criminology 2criminal law

 

A Plain English Introduction to Business Law in Ireland – Layman’s guide to Irish Law

Business law

Business law (or the law of business organisations) is the area of law concerning companies and other business organisations. This includes corporations, partnerships and other associations which usually carry on some form of economic or charitable activity

If you are a law student or you have, or are thinking about, setting up your own business, this textbook will provide you with an essential grounding in company structure and law within Ireland. The structure of business and the legal requirements for partners, directors, shareholders and company secretaries are crucial in order to ensure that companies stay within the law and avoid costly and potentially devastating leadership mistakes.  Business law is a broad spectrum in Irish law, is utilises various legal principles and doctrines such as the law of Contract, the law of Tort, Company law, Consumer law, the law of Agency, EU law, Employment law and of course, legal theory, jurisprudence and the fundamentals of the Irish legal system.

business law cover

A layman’s guide – An Introduction to Irish law – the law of Tort

The law of Tort

A tort is a civil wrong, tort is a French word for wrong, or the Latin word ‘tortum or twisted”, a tort occurs when a person commits a civil wrong against another person causing them damage.  Tortfeasor is the person who commits the tort.  Under tort law, an injured party can bring a civil case to seek compensation for a wrong done to the party or the party’s property.

Simply put; the law of tort is a branch of law which helps people to make a claim for compensation (usually a money payment) from another person who hurts them or their property. For instance, when one driver hurts another driver because he or she was not paying attention (negligent), the driver who caused the hurt (defendant) may have committed a tort.  If a person (plaintiff) is hurt by another person (defendant) they may be able to sue them (civil litigation) and get compensation (usually money).  Most torts are accidents, like car accidents or slippery floors where people can fall down and get hurt.  But some torts are done on purpose.  These are called intentional torts.  For example, if one person punches another person, this could be an intentional tort called battery.

Most torts cause physical harm to people, however, some torts cause damage to property, like a broken window (trespass to property).  Some torts can harm other things, like someone’s reputation or a business.(defamation).

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An Introduction to Criminal and Forensic Psychology – The Criminal Mind

Did you know you are more likely to fall victim to a serial killer than you are to win the lottery?
Do you have a burning interest in Psychopaths, serial killers, stalkers, rapists, paedophiles, or offender profiling? If so the fascinating world of criminal and forensic psychology is for you. The introduction to criminal and forensic psychology is suitable for anyone with a desire to learn about the workings of the criminal mind, what motivates an individual to commit crimes, and how investigators collect psychological clues.
This introductory book will provide you with a comprehensive insight into criminal behaviour and the criminal mind. You will develop your understanding of the major theories that seek to explain criminal behaviour especially in relation to violent and sexual crimes. Crime and Criminal behaviour is something that affects everyone.
The question over the Centuries has been, why do some people commit crime? What are the effects of that crime on the community as a whole? Those involved in criminal psychology ask these questions concerning behaviours as part of their career and research paths, this question is often asked by the Gardai, Prison services, Offender institutes and the Judiciary in the course of their jobs.
Forensic Psychology (2)

A Layman’s guide to Irish Law

The Law of Contract

It is assumed that most lay people do not read legal books or journals, etc, simply because they are not interested or don’t have the time. But many people do not read legal books or articles because they assume they would not understand a word of the legalese, and this is unfortunate. Most legal principles are, in fact, highly readable. Yes, they contain some technical legal language and concepts that the average non-lawyer is not familiar with, and this can make them hard to understand.
That is why I have put together these guides. You do not need a law degree to read and understand a the law in Ireland. All you need do is learn a few fairly simple ideas and the definitions of a small number of terms.

This book is intended to be exactly what the title says, a layman’s guide to Irish law, it will have over 5 topics, such as the layman’s guide to Irish law, contract, tort, constitutional, company and criminal law. It is definitely not a primer on law. I discuss only those legal technicalities which I believe are necessary to understand the bulk of what is written. And of course, I should add the usual disclaimer that this is not legal advice

kindle cover contract

ILAC method to answer legal questions

ILEC SAMPLE METHODS

The ILAC method of answering law questions is the single best way that I have found to help students to deal with all aspect of answering the question incorporating all of the essential elements.

Spencer, a mechanic, was shopping in Do It Yourself Ltd when an overhead shelf collapsed and the contents of the shelf fell on Spencer. As a result of this accident Spencer suffered a broken pelvis and spent five weeks in hospital recovering.

As a result of his hospitalisation, Spencer (who is self-employed) was unable to complete a number of mechanical projects that he was working on, and also could not take on new clients (as he was unsure as to how long his injuries would prevent him working). In addition, Spencer (who also models in his spare time) was due to compete in Ireland’s Hunky Mechanic competition a week after the accident. This competition was offering a top prize of €8,000 cash and a holiday to Tahiti.

Because of his injuries he was unable to compete in this competition. Prior to the competition the bookies were tipping Spencer as the favourite to win this competition. Spencer is planning on suing Do It Yourself Ltd for his injuries and in this regard he seeks your advice:

  1. In the context of the law of negligence, discuss the concept of remoteness of damages and assess whether Do It Yourself Ltd are obliged to compensate Spencer for his personal injuries, his loss of income and his loss of future income.

As he was the bookies favourite Spencer is also considering suing Do It Yourself Ltd for the loss of the €10,000 cash and the holiday to Tahiti. State whether this loss is likely to be recoverable by Spencer.

Outline the statute of limitations within which Spencer must bring his claim against Do It Yourself Ltd.

What are the facts?

Even if you are not requested to submit a list of facts in your answer, it is a good idea to write one.
This will help you sort through the facts you have been given and determine which facts are relevant.
DO NOT SUBMIT THIS, THE MARKER/EXAMINER IS VERY AWARE OF THE

FACTS

  • Who?
  • What?
  • When?
  • When?
  • Why

Who is involved? (identify parties specifically by name, if possible) SPENCER AND THE DO IT YOURSELF LTD.

How? AN OVERHEAD SHELF COLLAPSED AND THE CONTENTS FELL ON HIM

What is the known (relevant) information? Customer was in a store when the contents of an overhead shelf fell on him.

Include specific details like dates and monetary figures – lost wages (unknown amounts) 8,000 and a holiday

 

    • Note: Reread the question at the end of the case study. This will tell you what you are supposed to be doing and it will help you determine which facts are relevant.
    • Is there any missing information? Unsure of the safety precautions used by the store.
    • Why? (was is avoidable?) IT COLLAPSED
    • Who suffered? SPENCER

 

  • ISSUES
  • FACTS
  • LAW

Issues

Identify the problem: what has gone wrong and for whom?

Spencer has been injured by falling stock

Name each Plaintiff and Defendant and briefly describe their individual issues

The plaintiff was in the hardware store when he was injured by falling stock with was the responsibility of the defendant

Work out what area of law may govern the resolution of the problem.

Law of Tort, Negligence?

This could include, but is not limited to the following bodies of law

Contract law (be specific about which part)

A company law issue (e.g. breach of director’s duty)

Negligence Criminal Law

Constitutional Law

Law of Tort                                                                                        

Negligence /remoteness of damage

Assignments generally relate to one area of law but the assignment will usually raise a number of issues within that general area.

Identify any conflicting or troublesome facts

The competition win is not guaranteed

Note: Assessment tasks are set around the work that you have done in class or will do in class. You are not expected to go outside the content of the unit but you are expected to explore it

Law or principle

Set out the legal principles that will be used to address the problem.

Negligence, remoteness of damages, the statute of limitations etc.

Source legal principles from cases and legislation.

Reasonable foreseeability, the Wagon Mound

Note: Make sure you are specific when stating the relevant law/rules that apply, and always make sure to support propositions with case authority.

Application

Explain in detail why the Plaintiff’s claims are (or are not) justified, based on the body of law pertaining to the case.

A duty of care exists between the parties,

How will this law be used by each party to argue their case?

(plaintiff) A duty of care, duty breached, causation, reasonable foreseeability of the damage caused of a high shelf collapsed that this injury could occur.

Use relevant precedent cases or Legal Principles to support each answer.

The Wagon Mound, reasonable forseeability

You may also choose to use Legislation, when applicable.

The statute of limitations act

There are often several Plaintiffs involved. Take the time to examine each case individually and analyse why their claims are (or are not) valid.

N/A

Legal Principals and precedent cases are used in each analysis, even if there is overlap among Plaintiffs (the same precedent can be applied to both parties,)

Note: Take time to discuss the contentious aspects of the case rather than the ones that are most comfortable or obvious.

As the competition is just that there is no way of knowing if spencer would have won this, therefore the holiday and 8,000 he will not be compensated for.

Conclusion 

Stand back and play ‘the judge.’

Usually a one sentence statement is enough

Choose the argument you think is the strongest and articulate what you believe to be the appropriate answer.

  • Reasonable foreseeability, wagon mound, reasonable and prudent shop owner.
  • The statute of limitations act

 

State who is liable for what and to what extent.

The shop owner is liable, but only for the lost wages, or medical bills, not the holiday or prize money.

Consider how parties could have acted to better manage their risks in order to avoid this legal problem .

Items at a height should be smaller or lighter or on extra strong shelves.

Do you need to include remedies?

Now you are ready to start your answer, you already have all of the facts now so structure all of the above and start writing.


What is Criminology?

Criminology examines why people commit crime, these are the pivotal questions in the ongoing debate of how crime should be handled and prevented. It is an area of law that deals with victims of crime, theories explaining illegal and/or deviant behaviour, the social reaction to crime, the effectiveness of anti-crime policies and the broader political terrain of social control.

Areas of expertise of Criminologists(small example)

Anomie, Social Control Theories
Labelling Theory and Critical Criminology
White Collar Crime

What is Forensic Psychology?

(The science of Behaviour)

Forensic Psychology is used within the justice system to assess offenders, identify criminal capacity in young people and to characterise psychopaths. Identify fitness to stand trial and finally they can be used to determine the likelihood of future violence. Can be used to assess the future criminality of offending minors

Areas of expertise of Forensic Psychologists (small sample)

Criminal Responsibility and Psychiatric Defences
Mental Disorder as a Defence
Eyewitness Testimony

What is Criminal Psychology?

Criminal Psychology (The study of criminal minds)

Criminal Psychology is in plain English, the study of why criminals do what they do. In essence, it is the study of the mental processes, motivational patterns, and behaviour of criminals.

Areas of expertise of Criminal Psychologists (small sample)

Offender Profiling
Geographical Profiling
Eye witness testimony

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