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Forensic Psychology TAT – the Thematic Application Test (TAT). This is whereby the offender is shown a picture and they themselves make up a story to go with the picture. It is also known as picture interpretation technique (PIT) The most common form of this test was introduced by Professor Murray, it is often used in juvenile offenders. There are 32 cards and each card can be provocative yet appearing unobtrusive in their presentation. The subject looks at the photographs for a few moments, studies it in detail and answers the following in their own words. • what has led up to the event shown • what is happening at the moment • what the characters are feeling and thinking • what the outcome of the story was Personality tests are a way to describe the way a person is and what sort of characteristics they may hold. The TAT shows us how these characteristics may be hidden from the rest of the world, so as to present a normalized, stable front, but can also explain why we emulate certain behaviours. Below are ten of the 32 TAT pictures for you to look at and answer the above four questions.
What is Geographical Profiling?
The geographic model can potentially be applied to all sorts of crime. It examines the distribution of a series of crimes, as was the case in Stuart Kind’s prediction of the Yorkshire Ripper’s base of action and David Canter’s
work in establishing the significance of location in the Railway Murderer (John Duffy) case. Geographic profiling, however, began in North America.
The North American approach Geographic profiling is an investigative tool developed by Kim Rossmo. He developed it whilst he was serving as a Detective Chief Inspector in the Vancouver City Police Department. Now Dr. Kim Rossmo, he has been a research professor in Texas State’s Department of Criminal Justice since
2003, and the University’s Endowed Chair in Criminology since 2007.
Although there have been a number of studies of offenders’ spatial patterns, it is Rossmo who is most widely connected with geographical profiling as an
investigative tool. He advocated its use in conjunction with, and as a complement to, crime linkage and investigative profiling.
In his address to the National Center for Intelligence Studies, Rossmo (1998) defined geographic profiling as:
‘An information management strategy to assist in serial, violent crime investigations, which facilitates the focus of investigative efforts. It is also a support service, a type of analysis and an investigative procedure. The whole
process is based on the intelligent collection, analysis and sharing of information. Suitable crimes for geographical profiling are those that are serial in nature, murder, rape, robbery, arson, bombings and predatory crimes such as sex murders or child molestation.’
Can a person be addicted to crime?
In a word, .... YES.
Crime addictions, like any addiction the addiction to crime has common characteristics (Peale. S, 1985) "addictive experiences are potent modifiers of mood and sensation".
There is a common theory that the following characteristics of addictions include:
...Tolerance - the need for more to produce the same effect.
...Withdrawal - distress after a period of non-engagement.
...Craving - distress associated with desire to re-engage.
...Salience - increasing importance of addiction in lifestyle.
...Conflict - increasing awareness of negative consequences.
...Relapse - reinstatement after a decision to stop or reduce.
Addicted to sexual crime
There are four main studies in the sexual offending literature which suggest that some sexual offending can be addictive. The first is that of McCulloch et al (1983) where the authors took a sample of sadistic sexual offenders in a British Special Hospital.
They found that of their sample of 16, 13 described elaborate and frequent masturbation fantasies. These fantasies showed tolerance in that for many subjects, they were being constantly revised in the direction of greater sadistic and violent content.
Some offenders reported that, after a time, their fantasies had become unsatisfying and had to be supplemented with their acting-out part of the fantasy for them to continue to achieve that state of arousal they were seeking.
For many, these “behavioural try-outs”
eventually led to the full index offence or offences for which they were convicted.
Interdisciplinary lecturing has to be one of the most exciting roles which a lecturer can hold. From the beginnings of Criminology and Forensic / Criminal Psychology and how these disciplines interacted with the law and sentencing in the criminal justice system, there is never a moment whereby one could truly say, I am bored.
My MSc research revolved around how poor nutrition in childhood can contribute to delinquent behaviour which in turn can possibly lead to criminal behaviour in adulthood. This research was exhaustive yet rewarding culminating in a finished dissertation which is available to read upon application.
The most difficult thing is the decision to act, the rest is merely tenacity. The fears are paper tigers. You can do anything you decide to do. You can act to change and control your life; and the procedure , the process is its own reward.
At the moment I am in the early stages of many legal articles which revolve around sentencing of offenders in Ireland, I have also chosen to research the sentencing of offenders and also the leniency or perceived leniency in the sentencing of offenders i.e. gender bias.
I am an advocate of all citizens being educated in the basic legal principles and having some knowledge of the law. There are several links on this website whereby you can learn the basics of Irish law, please feel free to navigate my site and if you have any queries on any of the articles or content then you can contact me below:
Interdisciplinary lecturing has to be one of the most exciting roles which a lecturer can hold. From the beginnings of Criminology and Forensic / Criminal Psychology…
What is Criminology?
Criminology examines why people commit crime, these are the pivotal questions in the ongoing debate of how crime should be handled and prevented. It is an area of law that deals with victims of crime, theories explaining illegal and/or deviant behaviour, the social reaction to crime, the effectiveness of anti-crime policies and the broader political terrain of social control.
Areas of expertise of Criminologists(small example)
Anomie, Social Control Theories
Labelling Theory and Critical Criminology
White Collar Crime
What is Forensic Psychology?
(The science of Behaviour)
Forensic Psychology is used within the justice system to assess offenders, identify criminal capacity in young people and to characterise psychopaths. Identify fitness to stand trial and finally they can be used to determine the likelihood of future violence. Can be used to assess the future criminality of offending minors
Areas of expertise of Forensic Psychologists (small sample)
Criminal Responsibility and Psychiatric Defences
Mental Disorder as a Defence
What is Criminal Psychology?
Criminal Psychology (The study of criminal minds)
Criminal Psychology is in plain English, the study of why criminals do what they do. In essence, it is the study of the mental processes, motivational patterns, and behaviour of criminals.
Areas of expertise of Criminal Psychologists (small sample)
Eye witness testimony